Engineering study consists of 11 sections. The consultant has divided the study of the 11 sections into 3 steps as follows.
In reviewing the survey and detailed design of the two-lane road project conducted by the Myanmar department (Previous Designed), the consultant conducted additional survey and engineering design, summarized as in below table.
|1. Topographic Surveying and Leveling||Additional Survey by UAV (29 April- 3 May 2019)|
|2. Soil and Material Investigation||Additional Survey||
|3. Pavement Structure and Embankment Design|
|4. Bridge and Drainage System||
||The R.C.BOX CULVERT 1.20x1.20 m. did new designed total 402 points.
|5. Road and Intersection Design||Re-alignment to the existing road total 3 locations
|6. Electrical Lighting and Signal Lights||
|| Electrical Lighting
|7. Safety Condition|
|8. Right of Way (R.O.W.)|
|9. The Amount of Construction and Cost Estimation|
|10. Toll Plaza & Rest Area||
|11. Wildlife Corridors Design|
|12. Tender Documents Preparation||
||Contract 1: distance 52.592 km.
Asphaltic Concrete Pavement Design
Reinforcement Concrete Pavement Design
The stability of the slope in each station depends on the hardness of the rock on the slope in the area and the geological conditions. For preliminary analysis, the consultant has prepared data for analysis in the SLIDE 6.0 program. Therefore, since the consultant went to explore and collect data in June 2019, it can be concluded that the project has levels and the angle between 45-76 degrees or the slope (X: Y) of 1: 1 to ¼: 1 and the slope height is from 5.0 to 10.0 meters.
As a result of the slope stability analysis, the case where Typical 1 to 8 is safe over the long-term condition for all slopes specified in the case of Typical 9 where the slope is 1: 1 and ½: 1 are Safety can be taken for construction. But where the slope of ¼: 1 is not safe, it is not suitable for construction.
The surface protection of the pavement structure is construction through the mountain. It should be using the rock fall protection net to protect the rock falling on the pavement structure. The plants growing on side slope helps reduce soil failure may have to be planted with local plants that grow in that area. But, the gradient ratio of 60 degrees or more or the mountainous area, it may not be suitable for plant growth. Therefore, the drainage rails should be on each floor of the slope to help the drainage of water not to flow freely into the slope area.
On the other hand, the wet or side of the river sections, the side slope should be compacted to fill soil to be the Embankment, Gabion wall or Concrete retaining wall, etc. Finally, the side slope in this section is based on the typical drawing and is appropriate on the construction site.
Summary of Design Bridge Structure Improvement
The considering the design of all 19 bridges, it has strength in accordance with AASHTO-LRFD standards by designing the foundation as a driven pile size 0.40x0.40 meters. Super Structure is the I-Girder structure, details can be summarized in below Table with the additional skirt design at the Bridge Sta.16+885.787
Having considered the bridge at Sta.16+885.78, the foundation is designed in the form of floating foundation, with 4 m. clearance from the ground. There are protection skirts but these are too short. The consultant decided to design and add more skirts in order to reduce the chance of collision by logs and debris. The protection skirts are a measure to prevent logs and debris collision and being stuck between posts. Reason behind this design is that the job site cannot be opened since water flows all year round and there is no way to divert the water during construction. Design of the skirts is shown in below figure.
Cross Drainage System Design
The consultant has re-designed the drainage from pipe concrete diameter 1.00 m. configuration to R.C.Box Culverts at the size of 1.20x1.20 m. for the whole project. The consultant also increases the size of the R.C.Box Culverts to 2-3.60x3.60x38 m. at two locations.
The previous design indicated that there was a design to prevent erosion on the side of the road. However, there is no plan in details for position and type of drainage buildings. Since this road is on steep slopes, erosion will definitely occur as waterflow at road side is too fast for the drainage to handle. The consultant has designed erosion prevention with indications on position of side drainage buildings. These buildings also need cement grouting to prevent erosion along 110 km. of the distance of the whole road.
In terms of detailed design of roads and intersections, the consultant considers locations that need to be corrected and improved to comply with standards as follows;
The results of the intersection review compose of 3 main locations of the intersection.
The consultant has designed additional lane for vehicles to make a left turn in and out of the intersection including those waiting to make a right turn more safely.Design of intersection follows observes engineering standards. The design composes of advice, warning, yield and stop signs. It also considers installing yellow flashing signals for the highest safety possible. An analysis on traffic volume found that the two intersections (No.1 and No.3 need traffic lights by the year 2037.
The intersection No.1 at Sta.18+500 (the intersection of project road and highway No.8)
The intersection No.2 at Sta. 54+300 (the intersection of project road and local road)
The intersection No.3 at Sta.67+667 (the intersection of project road and Myitta road)
The electric lighting design of the road for this project will use LED lamp powered by Solar Cell with control devices and battery backup, installed on a pole of 9 meters high. The areas that need to install lighting systems in the project can be summarized in below table.
|1. Sta.16+880 to Sta.17+120||Bridge No.1 (Length 240 m.)|
|2. Sta.18+400 to Sta.18+800||
|3. Sta.53+350 to Sta.53+750|
|4. Sta.66+650 to Sta.67+050||
|5. Sta.69+050||At the rest area, there are lightings at parking lot, inside road, office building, shops, lavatory and public area.||
|6. Sta.150+000 to Sta.156+500||
The consultant reviewed the previous design and emphasized on safety in using the route. This includes considering risk positions which can cause accidents and adjust them to be in accordance with safety according to engineering principles as follows;
1. Additional Lane for Trucks or Climbing LaneThe consultant considered designing an additional lane with criteria on the climbing lane. Locations where additional lane is needed shall be a long and uphill drive. Vehicles, especially trucks, would lose speed and overtaking becomes riskier. There are 7 locations where additional lane is needed, with total distance of 5.28 km. as shown in below figure.
2. Safety Design at IntersectionsConduct the additional lane which can facilitate incoming and outgoing at intersections and vehicles waiting to make the right turn. Analysis on current and future traffic condition found that these two intersections (No.1 and No.3 intersections) need traffic by the year 2037. The consult has designed intersection control in accordance with engineering criteria for safety and efficiency. The design includes suggestion and warning, yield, stop signs and yellow flashing light.
3. Safety equipmentThere is safety equipment in the previous design such as steel beam guard rail or concrete barriers where they are needed. The consultant designed more safety equipment, such as
4. Traffic Signs The consultant designed and installed additional traffic signs at dangerous curves, re-alignment all 3 paths and new designed all 3 intersections . Traffic signs consist of regulatory, Warning Signs, Guide Signs, and Limit Speed Sign.
5. Pavement Markings such as the center line, outer and inner edge lines, reduce speed line and directions arrows. Besides, the consultant has designed rumble strips to reduce speed at 20 hazardous points as shown in below figure.
6. Traffic Management Plan During Construction is a plan on moving equipment, control and provide safety and convenience during construction period. This would accommodate local and passing users. Plans include lane division, detours courses and bridges and construction machinery.
7. Traffic Change Over The consultant designs traffic change over at Sta.156+075. The design is in one lane at 5.00 m. with 2 shoulders at 1.50 m. width. The total width is 8.00 m., as shown in below figure.
The consultant has processed and created the topographic and right of way map with detailed terrain as the background. The topographic and right of way map will be carried out by digitizing various buildings from photographs obtained from using the UAV in aviation photography with field surveys to indicate the type of building that has been digitized and into the map according to the symbols specified.
The consultant has put down the Proposed Centerline and expand width of R.O.W. from 40.00 meter to 70.00 meter in the topographic map according to meeting to approve the inception report at the meeting room on the second floor of The Ministry of Construction, Republic of the Union of Myanmar (4 April 2019). Including the positioning of the pins and also table showing the table coordinate (UTM) values of these placemarks. The consultant conducted a map showing details of land use and land type or cadastral plan in digital file format of software AutoCAD. All buildings appeared in project area have been classified in each type followed as below Table.
|Building Type||Amount (Building)|
The amount of construction calculation and cost estimation are 3.95 billions
Locations of Toll Plazas and Rest AreaThe consultant determines the number of rest area at 1 location at Sta.69+050 and toll plaza in the first phase at 2 locations at Sta.18+918 and Sta.155+750, the first one is at the starting point area and the second at the end of the project can be summarized in below figure.
Toll Plaza Design
Toll Collection SystemThe consultant designed toll collection system at two places, each with three traffic lanes (outgoing and incoming). It composes of two lanes for trucks and one for small vehicles, altogether six lanes as shown in below figure.
Rest Area DesignThe rest area consists of staff buildings, shops, parking area, canteen, restrooms, proposed fuel service areas and a viewpoint of the Tanintharyi River which beautiful scenery are shown in below figure.
Design of Wildlife Crossing PositionsThe consultant has reviewed information on the Design Manual Building a Sustainable Road to Dawei Enhancing Ecosystem Services and Wildlife Connectivity (WWF Report 2016) including conducting field survey with wildlife experts and environmentalists to assign locations of wildlife crossings. In assigning crossings positions, practicality and safety to wildlife must be borne in mind at all time. Safety is emohasized along rivers, streams and bridges. There are 12 wildlife crossings, being 10 underpasses under bridges and two box culverts crossings.
Configuration of Wildlife CrossingWildlife crossing design consists of two formats;
FencingInstall fencing at least 500 m of length on each side (2 km./Location)
Neighbouring Countries Economic Development Cooperation Agency (Public Organization) (NEDA)
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INDEX International Group Co.,Ltd.
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Decade Consultant Co.,Ltd.
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