Engineering study

Engineering study consists of 11 sections. The consultant has divided the study of the 11 sections into 3 steps as follows.

  • Step 1 Field survey Consists of 2 parts: route surveying and soil and material investigation, which the consultant will expedite the process at this stage to be completed as soon as possible to bring the information to detail design in the next step.
  • Step 2 Detailed design consists of 8 sections, namely the design of the road structure, bridges and drainage system, Detailed design of geometry and intersections, Electrical work, lighting and signal lights, Safety condition, right of way and land use data, positioning and design of toll booth and locating and designing the crossing of wildlife.
  • Step 3: Calculate the amount of construction work and estimated cost, which is the final step of engineering studies, when various design work has been completed.
  • Engineering study

    In reviewing the survey and detailed design of the two-lane road project conducted by the Myanmar department (Previous Designed), the consultant conducted additional survey and engineering design, summarized as in below table.

    Contents Design Detail
    1. Topographic Surveying and Leveling Additional Survey by UAV (29 April- 3 May 2019)
  • Use all the previous survey results.
  • Survey by UAV
  • Additional Topographic Data must be collected in areas of Sta.27+250 to Sta.28+250 (Dewahda Hill) and Sta.49+700 to Sta.50+850 (Saddle Hill).
  • 2. Soil and Material Investigation Additional Survey
  • Geological investigation on 4-6 June 2019
  • Recheck 5 Main Material Resources
  • 3. Pavement Structure and Embankment Design
  • Asphaltic concrete pavement (116 km. of distance)
  • Reinforcement concrete pavement (24 km. of distance)
  • Along the route Designed asphaltic concrete pavement
  • The steep slopes, Rest Area, Tolls Plaza and Intersections designed Reinforcement concrete pavement
  • 4. Bridge and Drainage System
  • Reviewed and no revision on 19 bridges
  • Design to use Foundation Protection Fin (Skirt) at bridge Sta.16+885.787
  • 21 Box culvert no revision
  • Re-design all 402 pipes culvert to R.C. BOX CULVERT 1.20x1.20 m.
  • Design side drain
  • The R.C.BOX CULVERT 1.20x1.20 m. did new designed total 402 points.
  • 152 points for new design of contract 1.
  • 250 points for new design of contract 2.
  • 5. Road and Intersection Design
  • Re-Previous Alignment Design to the existing road total 3 locations.
  • Re-Gradiant less than or equal 10%. (Along Alignment)
  • Intersection Design (Sta.18+500 / Sta.54+300 / Sta.67+667)
  • Re-alignment to the existing road total 3 locations
  • Sta.27+250 to Sta.28+250 (The Dewahda Hill).
  • Sta.49+700 to Sta.50+850 (The Saddles Hill).
  • Sta.100+250 to Sta.103+351 (The Elephant Hill)
  • 6. Electrical Lighting and Signal Lights
  • Solar cell Electrical Lighting and Signal Lights.
  • Designed the Proposed Traffic Signal Lights
  • Electrical Lighting
  • Bridge at Sta.16+885.787
  • 3 Intersections (Sta.18+500 / Sta.54+300 / Sta.67+667).
  • Rest Area
  • Toll Plaza 2 locations
  • Traffic Change Over
  • Warning Flashing Light
  • 3 Intersections (Sta.18+500 / Sta.54+300 / Sta.67+667).
  • Traffic Change Over at Sta.156+075
  • 7. Safety Condition
  • Additional Lane for Truck or Climbing Lanes for Truck
  • Channelization Intersection
  • Safety Equipment
  • Emergency Stop Bay Station
  • Road Stud
  • Traffic Sign and Marking
  • Traffic Management Plan during Construction
  • Traffic Change Over
  • Designed 7 Locations of Additional Lane for Truck. There are total distances about 5.28 km.
  • Channelize 3 Intersections are Sta.32+750 Sta.98+600 and Sta.128+500
  • Designed 3 Locations of Emergency Stop Bay are Sta.32+750 Sta.98+600 and Sta.128+500
  • Installed Road Stud
  • Installed Traffic Sign and Marking
  • Installed Ramble Strip
  • Designed of Traffic Change Over at Sta.156+075
  • 8. Right of Way (R.O.W.)
  • Width 70.00 m.
  • R.O.W has width 70.00 m. Along alignment (Except 2 Tolls Plaza & Rest Area).
  • 9. The Amount of Construction and Cost Estimation
  • Update the unit price to be current.
  • Construction cost about 3.95 million Thai Baht. (excluded %Vat and %Contingency)s
  • 10. Toll Plaza & Rest Area
  • Sta.18+918: Toll Plaza No.1
  • Sta.69+050: Rest Area
  • Sta.155+700: Toll Plaza No.2
  • Toll Plaza
  • Office
  • Toll Collection and Electrical
  • Rest area
  • Office + Toilet + Parking + (Proposed Shop Area / Service Area / Proposed Fuel Station)
  • Electrical Design
  • 11. Wildlife Corridors Design
  • Designed of Wildlife Corridors 12 Locations
  • The Wildlife Crossing RC. Box Culverts 3.60 m. x 3.60 m. (2 locations)
  • The Wildlife Crossing Under Bridge (10 locations)
  • 12. Tender Documents Preparation
  • Selection of Contractors
  • Selection of Consulting Engineers
  • Contract 1: distance 52.592 km.
  • 8 bridges: at 880.00 m. 152 RC. Box Culverts.
  • Duration of construction: 30 months.
  • Contract 2: distance 87.450 km.
  • 11 bridges: at 315.00 m. 250 RC. Box Culverts.
  • Duration of construction: 30 months.
  • Pavement Structure and Embankment Design

    Asphaltic Concrete Pavement Design

    Reinforcement Concrete Pavement Design

    The stability of the slope in each station depends on the hardness of the rock on the slope in the area and the geological conditions. For preliminary analysis, the consultant has prepared data for analysis in the SLIDE 6.0 program. Therefore, since the consultant went to explore and collect data in June 2019, it can be concluded that the project has levels and the angle between 45-76 degrees or the slope (X: Y) of 1: 1 to ¼: 1 and the slope height is from 5.0 to 10.0 meters.

    As a result of the slope stability analysis, the case where Typical 1 to 8 is safe over the long-term condition for all slopes specified in the case of Typical 9 where the slope is 1: 1 and ½: 1 are Safety can be taken for construction. But where the slope of ¼: 1 is not safe, it is not suitable for construction.

    The surface protection of the pavement structure is construction through the mountain. It should be using the rock fall protection net to protect the rock falling on the pavement structure. The plants growing on side slope helps reduce soil failure may have to be planted with local plants that grow in that area. But, the gradient ratio of 60 degrees or more or the mountainous area, it may not be suitable for plant growth. Therefore, the drainage rails should be on each floor of the slope to help the drainage of water not to flow freely into the slope area.

    On the other hand, the wet or side of the river sections, the side slope should be compacted to fill soil to be the Embankment, Gabion wall or Concrete retaining wall, etc. Finally, the side slope in this section is based on the typical drawing and is appropriate on the construction site.

    Bridge and Drainage System Design

    Summary of Design Bridge Structure Improvement

  • Stability and the Bridge Structure :
  • The considering the design of all 19 bridges, it has strength in accordance with AASHTO-LRFD standards by designing the foundation as a driven pile size 0.40x0.40 meters. Super Structure is the I-Girder structure, details can be summarized in below Table with the additional skirt design at the Bridge Sta.16+885.787

  • The Protect Erosion Structure :
  • Having considered the bridge at Sta.16+885.78, the foundation is designed in the form of floating foundation, with 4 m. clearance from the ground. There are protection skirts but these are too short. The consultant decided to design and add more skirts in order to reduce the chance of collision by logs and debris. The protection skirts are a measure to prevent logs and debris collision and being stuck between posts. Reason behind this design is that the job site cannot be opened since water flows all year round and there is no way to divert the water during construction. Design of the skirts is shown in below figure.

    Cross Drainage System Design

    The consultant has re-designed the drainage from pipe concrete diameter 1.00 m. configuration to R.C.Box Culverts at the size of 1.20x1.20 m. for the whole project. The consultant also increases the size of the R.C.Box Culverts to 2-3.60x3.60x38 m. at two locations.

  • Re-design the pipe from round to R.C.Box Culverts at the size of 1.20x1.20 meters Total number is 402 locations, according to suggestion from the Myanmar Steering Committee. The purpose is that it is easy to do maintenance.
  • Design R.C.Box Culverts at size of 2-3.60x3.60 m. dimensions at Sta.100+375 and Sta.126+373 to accommodate for both drainage system and wildlife crossings as suggested by environmentalists
  • .

    Erosion Prevention

    The previous design indicated that there was a design to prevent erosion on the side of the road. However, there is no plan in details for position and type of drainage buildings. Since this road is on steep slopes, erosion will definitely occur as waterflow at road side is too fast for the drainage to handle. The consultant has designed erosion prevention with indications on position of side drainage buildings. These buildings also need cement grouting to prevent erosion along 110 km. of the distance of the whole road.

    Road Detailed Design and Intersection Design

    In terms of detailed design of roads and intersections, the consultant considers locations that need to be corrected and improved to comply with standards as follows;

  • Horizontal Geometric Design the consultant considers adjusting the previous design back to the Access Road at 3 locations, namely, the Dewahda Hill (Sta.27+250 to Sta.28+250) and the Saddle Hill (Sta.49+700 to Sta.50+850). For the Elephant Cry Hill (Sta.100+250 to Sta.103+351) consider re-alignment to decrease of high cut-fill volume
  • 2. Vertical Geometry DesignThe consultant has adjusted the vertical slope to a value of not more than 10 percent throughout the project
  • 3. Shoulder widthSince most of the road travels on mountainous terrain, the shoulder width is generally designed at 1.00 m. and at 1.50 m. in the plain parts. There are three plains at Sta.18+000 to Sta.24+000, Sta.65+800 to Sta.99+300 and the third at Sta.152+100 to Sta.156+950. The total distance is length 44.35 km.
  • Intersection Design

    The results of the intersection review compose of 3 main locations of the intersection.

  • The intersection No.1 at Sta.18+500 (the intersection of project road and highway No.8)
  • The intersection No.2 at Sta. 54+300 (the intersection of project road and local road)
  • The intersection No.3 at Sta.67+667 (the intersection of project road and Myitta road)
  • The consultant has designed additional lane for vehicles to make a left turn in and out of the intersection including those waiting to make a right turn more safely.Design of intersection follows observes engineering standards. The design composes of advice, warning, yield and stop signs. It also considers installing yellow flashing signals for the highest safety possible. An analysis on traffic volume found that the two intersections (No.1 and No.3 need traffic lights by the year 2037.

    The intersection No.1 at Sta.18+500 (the intersection of project road and highway No.8)

    The intersection No.2 at Sta. 54+300 (the intersection of project road and local road)

    The intersection No.3 at Sta.67+667 (the intersection of project road and Myitta road)

    Road Lighting and Traffic Signal

    The electric lighting design of the road for this project will use LED lamp powered by Solar Cell with control devices and battery backup, installed on a pole of 9 meters high. The areas that need to install lighting systems in the project can be summarized in below table.

    STA. Area Remark
    1. Sta.16+880 to Sta.17+120 Bridge No.1 (Length 240 m.)
  • Installation of Lighting (Solar Cell) both sides.
  • 2. Sta.18+400 to Sta.18+800
  • Intersection No.1
  • Toll Plaza 1 and at office building, walkway, parking lot, public area and lavatory.
  • Installation of Lighting and warning flashing light (Solar Cell) And deep into the other side 200 meters on all 4 sides.
  • Toll plaza: Installation of Lighting (Solar Cell)
  • 3. Sta.53+350 to Sta.53+750
  • Intersection No.2
  • Installation of Lighting and warning flashing light (Solar Cell) Deep into the other side 200 meters in every direction.
  • Toll plaza: Installation of Lighting (Solar Cell)
  • 4. Sta.66+650 to Sta.67+050
  • Intersection No.3
  • Installation of Lighting and warning flashing light (Solar Cell) into the other side 200 meters
  • Toll plaza: Installation of Lighting (Solar Cell)
  • 5. Sta.69+050 At the rest area, there are lightings at parking lot, inside road, office building, shops, lavatory and public area.
  • Installation of Lighting (Solar Cell)
  • 6. Sta.150+000 to Sta.156+500
  • Project end point, community
  • Traffic changeover
  • Toll the second place and office, corridors, parking, common areas, restrooms
  • - Installation of Lighting (Solar Cell)
  • Safety Condition

    The consultant reviewed the previous design and emphasized on safety in using the route. This includes considering risk positions which can cause accidents and adjust them to be in accordance with safety according to engineering principles as follows;

    1. Additional Lane for Trucks or Climbing LaneThe consultant considered designing an additional lane with criteria on the climbing lane. Locations where additional lane is needed shall be a long and uphill drive. Vehicles, especially trucks, would lose speed and overtaking becomes riskier. There are 7 locations where additional lane is needed, with total distance of 5.28 km. as shown in below figure.

    2. Safety Design at IntersectionsConduct the additional lane which can facilitate incoming and outgoing at intersections and vehicles waiting to make the right turn. Analysis on current and future traffic condition found that these two intersections (No.1 and No.3 intersections) need traffic by the year 2037. The consult has designed intersection control in accordance with engineering criteria for safety and efficiency. The design includes suggestion and warning, yield, stop signs and yellow flashing light.

    3. Safety equipmentThere is safety equipment in the previous design such as steel beam guard rail or concrete barriers where they are needed. The consultant designed more safety equipment, such as

  • Emergency Stop Bay Station designed at Sta.32+750, Sta.98+600 and Sta.128+500 as shown in below figure
  • Road Stud used on the road are reflective glass road stud. These can be used as locations require. Normally, there are two colors, the yellow studs shall be installed at the edge line and the white ones at lane division. They are to be installed at the 3 intersections and hazardous points
  • 4. Traffic Signs The consultant designed and installed additional traffic signs at dangerous curves, re-alignment all 3 paths and new designed all 3 intersections . Traffic signs consist of regulatory, Warning Signs, Guide Signs, and Limit Speed Sign.

    5. Pavement Markings such as the center line, outer and inner edge lines, reduce speed line and directions arrows. Besides, the consultant has designed rumble strips to reduce speed at 20 hazardous points as shown in below figure.

    6. Traffic Management Plan During Construction is a plan on moving equipment, control and provide safety and convenience during construction period. This would accommodate local and passing users. Plans include lane division, detours courses and bridges and construction machinery.

    7. Traffic Change Over The consultant designs traffic change over at Sta.156+075. The design is in one lane at 5.00 m. with 2 shoulders at 1.50 m. width. The total width is 8.00 m., as shown in below figure.

    Right of Way Plan

    The consultant has processed and created the topographic and right of way map with detailed terrain as the background. The topographic and right of way map will be carried out by digitizing various buildings from photographs obtained from using the UAV in aviation photography with field surveys to indicate the type of building that has been digitized and into the map according to the symbols specified.

    The consultant has put down the Proposed Centerline and expand width of R.O.W. from 40.00 meter to 70.00 meter in the topographic map according to meeting to approve the inception report at the meeting room on the second floor of The Ministry of Construction, Republic of the Union of Myanmar (4 April 2019). Including the positioning of the pins and also table showing the table coordinate (UTM) values of these placemarks. The consultant conducted a map showing details of land use and land type or cadastral plan in digital file format of software AutoCAD. All buildings appeared in project area have been classified in each type followed as below Table.

    Building Type Amount (Building)
    1-SC 226
    2-SC 2
    1-SW 123
    2-SW 2
    1-SCW 4
    1-SZ 3
    Total 360

    หมายเหตุ

  • 1-SC = Building, One – Storey concrete
  • 1-SW = Building, One – Storey wooden frame
  • 1-SZ = Building, One - Storey-Zinc
  • 1-SCW = Building, One - Storey- concrete and wood
  • 2-SC = Building, Two – Storey concrete
  • 2-SW = Building, Two – Storey wooden frame
  • The Amount of Construction and Cost Estimation

    The amount of construction calculation and cost estimation are 3.95 billions

    Toll Plaza and Rest Area Design

    Locations of Toll Plazas and Rest AreaThe consultant determines the number of rest area at 1 location at Sta.69+050 and toll plaza in the first phase at 2 locations at Sta.18+918 and Sta.155+750, the first one is at the starting point area and the second at the end of the project can be summarized in below figure.



    Toll Plaza Design


    Toll Collection SystemThe consultant designed toll collection system at two places, each with three traffic lanes (outgoing and incoming). It composes of two lanes for trucks and one for small vehicles, altogether six lanes as shown in below figure.



  • Design a toll collection system that supports cash toll payments. Pay tolls by credit card (Visa Master, etc.) and toll payments that can support future technologies such as QR-Code payment, coupons, special passes or via mobile phones (Smart Phone App), etc.
  • Toll systems such as Lane Controller (LC) computer systems, breach vehicle imaging (DVES) systems, Real Time Overview (RTO) monitoring and supervision systems, and cash register control systems. TOD (Tour of Duty) Computer system toll gate (Plaza Computer System: PCS) Communication (Intercom) Voice announcement system Security camera system, CCTV & Video Recording Security System etc.
  • Solar Cell Energy Is an electronic device Made from a special semiconductor that has the ability to convert energy from sunlight to electric energy. The electricity produced from the Solar Cell is a direct current +/-, which we can use immediately. It can also be stored in batteries and in a Power Bank. Power supply system and backup power. Indoor Electricity Distribution and Toll System Design Using Rooftop Solar Cell System and Battery Power to MDB Distribution Cabinet, LC Sub-Distribution Box. And design the distribution of electricity for the collection system and others It must have a backup power system (Generator Power Supply), supply electricity in case of power failure, and charge the battery.

  • Rest Area DesignThe rest area consists of staff buildings, shops, parking area, canteen, restrooms, proposed fuel service areas and a viewpoint of the Tanintharyi River which beautiful scenery are shown in below figure.

    Design of Wildlife Corridors

    Design of Wildlife Crossing PositionsThe consultant has reviewed information on the Design Manual Building a Sustainable Road to Dawei Enhancing Ecosystem Services and Wildlife Connectivity (WWF Report 2016) including conducting field survey with wildlife experts and environmentalists to assign locations of wildlife crossings. In assigning crossings positions, practicality and safety to wildlife must be borne in mind at all time. Safety is emohasized along rivers, streams and bridges. There are 12 wildlife crossings, being 10 underpasses under bridges and two box culverts crossings.

    Configuration of Wildlife CrossingWildlife crossing design consists of two formats;

  • The Wildlife Crossing RC. Box Culvert with the dimensions of 3.60x3.60 m., with additional design for smaller wildlife such as squirrels to use.
  • The Wildlife Crossing Under Bridge configuration. There are 10 locations in the form of mortar riprap.
  • FencingInstall fencing at least 500 m of length on each side (2 km./Location)

    The project owner office

    Neighbouring Countries Economic Development Cooperation Agency (Public Organization) (NEDA)

       123 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900

    0 2617 7676 0 2617 7683

    Consultant company group

    INDEX International Group Co.,Ltd.

       1/814 Soi Amporn, Moo 17, Khu Khot Subdistrict, Lam Luk Ka District, Pathum Thani 12130

    0 2532 3623 0 2532 3566

    Decade Consultant Co.,Ltd.

       1199 Piyawan Building, Floor 8, Paholyothin Road, Sam Sen Nai Subdistrict, Phaya Thai District, Bangkok 10400

    0 2619 9931 0 2619 9932

    PSK Consultant Co.,Ltd.

       1199 Piyawan Building, Floor 15 Room15 A, Sam Sen Nai Subdistrict, Phaya Thai District, Bangkok 10400

    0 2617 0429 0 2617 0426